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Published Research


Below is a selection of published research that applies the AdSAM® measure.

The effects of nostalgia cues in sexual health advertising
Cynthia R. Morton, Sabrina Williams, and Jon Morris

Health campaigns have the intent to “sell” behavior change in the present for a promise of benefit at a future point in time. Ideally, message strategies are devised so that important information is delivered to supplement an audience’s knowledge about health threat prevention, as well as awareness about ways to maintain, if not manage, positive health outcomes. Quite often in health communication campaigns give more attention to what a message says rather than to the context surrounding its presentation, the latter of which could improve its overall effectiveness. When this happens,the chance to connect deeply with groups that would benefit from it is lost.

Feng Shen, Saint Joseph’s University
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
 
Current practice in the field of neuromarketing either regards physiological measures as superior to self-reporting or uses just one type of measure. The current study proposed an integrative procedure combining a visual self-reporting scale with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure emotional response to television commercials. The researchers pinpointed brain responses to emotions in advertising at the gyrus level—the ridge between the two clefts on the cerebral surface of the brain—indicating the importance of the three key dimensions of emotion—appeal, engagement, and empowerment—in measuring feelings about advertising and marketing communications.
 
Qinwei Vivi Xie, University of Florida
Meng Zhang, University of Florida
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
 
“A survey of college-age students conducted by advertising Professor Jon D. Morris with graduate students Qinwei Vivi Xie and Meng Zhang shows that while college-age users reported positive feelings about business pages on Facebook, they viewed sponsored posts and banner ads as intrusive.
 
Morris and Xie surveyed 320 graduate and undergraduate students who were active Facebook users. The questionnaire covered three types of business presence on the site: News Feed ads, which appear as posts on a user’s Facebook home page along with friends’ status updates; banner ads that appear on the right side of the page; and business profile pages.
 
The survey reveals that the business profile pages were the only type of ad to receive positive ratings. News feed ads — which include posts from companies the user has actively liked — garnered more attention than banner ads, but still elicited negative feelings, according to the survey responses.”
 
As featured on MediaPost’s “Search Marketing Daily” Blog: Facebook Ads Deliver Like(s) Despite Dislike By College Students
 
This study has also been featured in several media sources and publicationsas seen in this article via The ConversationWhy does social media advertising fall flat?
 
Jooyoung Kim, University of Florida
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Joffre Swait
 
We examine a model of six latent constructs and propose that True Brand Loyalty can be explained as a result of five distinct antecedents: brand credibility, affective brand conviction, cognitive brand conviction, attitude strength, and brand commitment. Affective conviction, as measured by AdSAM, affects both Attitude Strength and Cognitive Conviction. Attitude Strength is strongly linked to Brand Commitment and True Brand Loyalty. Data from experimental conditions demonstrate that brand loyalty can be considered as truly loyal, only when mediated by a high degree of affective and cognitive brand conviction, and attitude strength. There are significant advertising and marketing implications.
 
Product Trial Study
Jooyoung Kim, University of Florida
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida

Affective (emotional) responses and cognitive responses to a product, influence trial evaluation are examined in experiments where product types (hedonic and functional) and involvements (low and high) are simultaneously manipulated. The results show that affective response overrode cognitive response under all conditions in forming product-trial attitudes. 

Observations: Journal of Advertising Research
Jon D. Morris

Although consumer research began focusing on emotional response to advertising during the 1980s, (Goodstein, Edell, and Chapman Moore. 1990; Burke and Edell, 1989; Aaker, Stayman, and Vezina, 1988; Holbrook and Batra, 1988), perhaps one of the most practical measures of affective response has only recently emerged. Part of the difficulty in developing measures of emotional response stems from the complexity of emotion itself (Plummer and Leckenby, 1985). Researchers have explored several different measurement formats including: verbal self-reports (adjective checklists), physiological techniques, photodecks, and dial-turning instruments. Read more about this article.

The Power of Affect: Predicting Intention
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Chongmoo Woo, University of Florida
James A. Geason, University of Florida
Jooyoung Kim, University of Florida

This robust structural modeling study, with over 23,000 responses to 240 advertising messages, found that affect when measured by a visual measure of emotional response dominates over cognition for predicting conative attitude and action.

Healthcare Research
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida

This paper & presentation were given at the Fall 2004 ARF Conference regarding emotions in healthcare research. The presentation demonstrates the use of Emotional Response Measurement in the healthcare marketing process long before the messaging strategies are developed. AdSAM is used to evaluate patient’s feelings about their conditions and their relationship with physicians and other influencers. See the presentation by clicking here.

The Psychological Processes of Mixed Valence Images: Emotional Response, Visual Attention, and Memory
Taylor Jing Wen 
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Mark Sherwood

Despite the growing significance of emotional images in advertising, the psychological and physiological responses toward multiple opposite valence images presented simultaneously remains somewhat unexplored. This eye-tracking research examined the relationship between emotional response, visual attention, and recall. The results showed that individuals were more likely to gaze toward the positive images than the negative ones when exposed to both simultaneously. More importantly, longer gaze duration translated into a stronger emotional response toward the images. Together gaze duration and the Empowerment dimension of emotional response significantly predicted the recall of the images. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. More Information.

The Role of Consumer Affect on Visual Social Networking Sites: How Consumers Build BrandRelationships
Aqsa Bashir
Jing (Taylor) Wen
Eunice Kim
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida

Visual social networking sites, such as Instagram, have become increasinglyattractive for engaging consumers and building brand relationships. Despitethis growing popularity, little is known about how visuals help consumers buildbrand relationships. Therefore, this study examines how consumers’ perceptions of brand engagement on Instagram influence their affective response and build brand commitment with regard to consumers’ three-dimensional emotional response—appeal, engagement, and empowerment. Findings suggest that consumers’ emotional responses each contribute to consumers’ brand commitment. Additionally, perceived entertainment and aesthetic values of brand posts were positively related to appeal; perceived belongingness to brands with engagement; and perceived mutuality with empowerment. More information.

Memory Emotional Response and Visual Attention
Taylor Jing Wen
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Mark Sherwood

Despite the growing significance of emotional images in advertising, the psychological and physiological responses toward multiple opposite valence tracking research examined the relationship between emotional response, visual attention, and recall. The results showed that individuals were more likely to gaze toward the positive images than the negative ones when exposed to both simultaneously. More importantly, longer gaze duration translated into a stronger emotional response toward the images. Together gaze duration and the Empowerment dimension of emotional response significantly predicted the recall of the images. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Read More.

IS BEAUTY A JOY FOREVER? YOUNG WOMEN’S EMOTIONAL RESPONSES TO VARYING TYPES OF BEAUTIFUL ADVERTISING MODELS
J. Robyti Goodman
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
John C. Sutherland

Numerous studies have explored the relationship between few ale beauty and positive effects for the woman, product, or ad; however, none has explored women’s emotional responses to different beauty types. This study investigated college women’s emotional responses to Solomon, Aslwwre. and Longo’s six beauty types. The survey results revealed  that the original six beauty types were not supported. Instead, they combined into tiuo indqiendent dimensions: Sexual/Sensual {SS) and Classic Beauty/Cute Girl-Next-Door (CCG). After testing emotional reactions to High CCG/Low SS, High SS/Loiv CCG, and Equal CCG/SS models, models with higher degrees of CCG produced significantly greater pleasure, arousal, and dominance. Read More.

Is emotional response the important missing variable incustomer experience measurement?
Cathy Gwynn
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida

If you attended a marketing or marketing research conference in the last few years you would think that understanding the feelings of the target market is paramount these days. Most speakers spend much of the time talking about the input from consumers or other audience groups and a portion of that time is directed toward mood or affect. Why, then, is so little attention being paid to effectively measuring these emotional reactions?

In some cases it may be that the marketer believes that determining liking or likability is sufficient. But many studies including Morris et al (2002) have shown that liking is not only poorly descriptive but it is often confounded. Respondents, for example, are unable to bifurcate liking of the stimulus from the product. In many instances, “liking” does not fit as an accurate description of the emotional response because emotions are much richer and more complex than simply level of appeal. Read More.

Internet Measures of Advertising Effects: A Global Issue
Jon D. Morris, Universy of Florida
ChongMoo Woo
Chang-Hoan Cho

A major concern about surveying on the Internet is the comparative reliability and mediated validity of the medium. To the, however, relatively little research has been conducted regarding this issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of an Ad effect measure toan Internet survey, when compared to a standard paper-and-pencil survey. The survey used SAM (the Sew-Assessment Manikin) to measure emotional response to several well-known brands, and was placed on the AdSAM” Internet website. The various multivariate estimates show that the Internet is a valid place to measure advertising effects reliably. Read More.

EMOTIONAL RESPONSE RESEARCH, PUBLISHED ARTICLE:EMOTIONS DRIVE ELECTION BEHAVIOR
Dr. Jon Morris, University of Florida
Peter Licari

Early in the presidential campaign, while late-night comedians eviscerated Donald Trump’s bid as “all flair and no substance,” it did not seem to matter to voters. “Substance” is only one part of the equation. How people feel plays a huge role in how they respond to the candidates and their policies.

In fact, our previous work in emotional responses to communication showed that emotions are twice as good as raw facts in predicting behavioral outcomes. So in order to really understand people’s support (or disdain) for the candidates this election year, you have to understand people’s emotional responses. Read More.

Mapping a Multidimensional Emotion in Response to Television Commercials
Jon D. Morris
Nelson J. Klahr
Feng Shen
Jorge Villegas
Paul Wright
Guojun He
Yijun Liu

Unlike previous emotional studies using functional neuroimaging that have focused on eitherl ocating discrete emotions in the brain or linking emotional response to an external behavior, this study investigated brain regions in order to validate a three-dimensional construct – namely pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) of emotion induced by marketing communication. Emotional responses to five television commercials were measured with Advertisement Self-Assessment Manikins(AdSAM1) for PAD and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify corresponding patterns of brain activation. We found significant differences in the AdSAM scores on the pleasure and arousal rating scales among the stimuli. Using the AdSAM response as a model for the fMRI image analysis, we showed bilateral activations in the inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyri associated with the difference on the pleasure dimension, and activations in the right superior temporalgyrus and right middle frontal gyrus associated with the difference on the arousal dimension. These findings suggest a dimensional approach of constructing emotional changes in the brain and provide abetter understanding of human behavior in response to advertising stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp 30:789–796, 2009.VV More Information.

The Contagious Emotions: Positive, Arousing and Empowering Emotions Determine Share and Purchase Intentions in Viral Advertising

The current study adopts the theoretical framework of three-factor theory of emotions (i.e., Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) to empirically test the role of emotions in influencing share and purchase intentions in the context of viral advertising. The results confirmed the positive role of Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance in spreading the viral video commercials. More importantly, the results demonstrated that Dominance emerged as the strongest predictor among the three dimensions to explain the increased share intention. In addition, the intention to share mediated the effects of three emotional dimensions on purchase intention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. More Information.

Is BEAUTY A JOY FOREVER?YOUNG WOMEN’S EMOTIONALRESPONSES TO VARYING TYPESOF BEAUTIFUL ADVERTISING MODELS
J. Robyti Goodman
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
John C. Sutherland

Numerous studies have explored the relationship between few ale beauty and positive effects for the woman, product, or ad; however, none has explored women’s emotional responses to different beauty types. This study imvstigated college women’s emotional responses to Solomon, Aslwwre. and Longo’s six beauty types. The survey results revealedthat the original six beauty types were not supported. Instead, they comhined into tiuo indqiendent dimensions: Sexual/Sensual {SS) and Classic Beauty/Cute Girl-Next-Door (CCG). After testing emotional reactions to High CCG/Low SS, High SS/Loiv CCG, and Equal CCG/SS models, models with higher degrees of CCG produced significantly greater pleasure, arousal, and dominance. More Information.

The Psychological Processes of Mixed Valence Images: Emotional Response, Visual Attention and Memory
Taylor Wen
Jon Morris, University of Florida
Mark Sherwood
Alissa Meyer
Nicole Rosenberg

The aim of this study is to investigate the interplay between visual attention, emotional response, and recall toward pairs of images of the same and mixed valence. More Information.

Facing Anger Versus Fear: How Individuals Regulate Level of Control in Risk Communication

Grounded in the motivational aspect of emotions, the current study proposes the underlying mechanism to explain how people in different levels of control (i.e., anger versus fear) are motivated to regulate their emotions. To further test this mechanism, this study utilizes various emotional appeals to examine different routes that individuals take to restore or maintain their level of control in the context of anti-terrorism communication. Angry people report greater feeling of control and more favorable ad attitude when exposed to a positive and high-dominance message as well as a negative and low-dominance message. In contrast, fearful people report similar results when exposed to four different emotional messages. In addition, the significant findings on ad attitude and behavioral intention is more prominent among angry people who have a higher need for control.
More Information.

Effects of Music
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Mary Anne Boone, University of Florida

Music is viewed as an important feature in advertising because of its wide use and ability to enhance viewer arousal and affect. Previous research exploring the effects of music on emotional response and behavior has had mixed results. Read more about this article.

Emotional Response of African Americans
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Marilyn S. Roberts
Gail F. Baker

The final results of the 1996 presidential election came as no surprise to most voters who followed the media’s coverage of public opinion polls. “It was a race that never really changed: Bill Clinton started ahead and stayed there” (“The Numbers,” 1996, p. 13). The 1996 presidential campaign has been referred to as a maintaining or status quo election. In making political comparisons, voters returned an incumbent president to office in economic good times just as they had done in 1984 with Ronald Reagan. However, Clinton was the first Democrat to be reelected for a second term since Franklin Roosevelt. Read more about this article.

Where East Meets West: Standardized Advertisements Across Cultures
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida

One hundred fourteen subjects, sixty-four Taiwanese and fifty American, whose ages range from 18 to 81 years, participated in this study to investigate the different emotional responses to twelve global standardized TV commercials. The results indicated that there were no significant overall differences in emotional responses to ads. One ad was found to evoke significantly different emotional response on the pleasure dimension and one ad on the arousal dimension. No significant difference was found for the dominance dimension between countries. Read more about this article.

Managing the Creative Effort: Pre and Post Production
Cathy Gwynn, AdSAM
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida

Although consumer research began focusing on emotional response to advertising during the 1980’s (Goodstein, Edell & Chapman Moore, 1990; Burke & Edell, 1989; Aaker, Stayman & Vezina, 1988; Holbrook & Batra, 1986), few studies have examined the possibility of using pre-production measurements to predict emotional responses to finished commercials. Research exploring the ability of preproduction stage executions to evoke emotional responses is needed to advance the advertising copy development systems (Shrimp & Gresham, 1983). Read more about this article.

Measuring Multiple Emotional Responses
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
James S. McMullen, University of Florida

Research on emotion and advertising has focused on emotional responses in the viewer and include links between emotional responses, recall, attitude-toward-the-ad, and purchase behavior (Holbrook & O’Shaughnessy, 1984; Thorson, 1989). The fact that both positive and negative emotional responses to the same advertisement have been found (Edell & Burke, 1987) suggests that these relationships might be more complex than previously thought. Read more about this article.

Emotional Response to Advertisements Across Cultures
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Kirsten L. Strausbaugh, University of Florida
Mbulaheni Nthangeni, University of Florida

In the expanding global trade, marketers are increasingly facing the difficulty of communicating across cultures. In order to assess the effects of their efforts then, advertisers need a measurement tool that is applicable to all possible markets including consumers of all ages, races and cultures. Read more about this article.

Internet Measures of Advertising Effects: A Global Issue
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Chong Moo Woo
Chang-Hoan Cho

A major concern about surveying on the Internet is the comparative reliability and mediated validity of the medium. To date however, relatively little research has been conducted regarding this issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of an Ad effect measure to an Internet survey, when compared to a standard paper-and-pencil survey. The survey used SAM the Self-Assessment Manikin to measure emotional response to several well-known brands, and was placed on the AdSAM® Internet website. Read More.

Mapping a Multidimensional Emotion in Response to Television Commercials
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Nelson J. Klahr, University of Florida
Feng Shen, University of Florida
Jorge Villegas, University of Florida
Paul Wright, University of Florida
Guojun He, University of Florida
Yijun Liu, University of Florida

This study investigated brain regions in order to validate a three-dimensional construct – namely pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) of emotion induced by marketing communication. Emotional responses to five television commercials were measured with Advertisement Self-Assessment Manikins (AdSAM) for PAD and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify corresponding patterns of brain activation. Read More.

Customer Experience: Still Waters Run Deep
Jon D. Morris, University of Florida
Cathy Gwynn

This article offers a way to measure the impact of emotions, using a car-rental example to show the benefits of asking customers how they feel about seemingly emotion-free transactions. Read More.

Other Researchers Evaluate AdSAM
Karolien Poels, Ghent University
Siegfried DeWitte, Catholic University of Leuven

When it comes to the advantages and disadvantages of this method, we agree with Morris, Woo, Geason, and Kim (2002) that visual self-report instruments like SAM are quick and user-friendly tools for measuring emotional responses to advertising. This makes visual self-report faster and less boring than verbal self-report. Also, visual instruments are suitable for cross-cultural research and research with children (Morris, 1995). Read More.